Now we can get to the part where we see how to encode meta-mathematical properties in terms of arithmetic properties of the Gödel numbering. In this post, we’re going to build up everything we need to express syntactic correctness, logical validity, and provability in terms of arithmetical properties of Gödel numbers.
Via The Meta of Gödel | Good Math, Bad Math.
A strange loop is a phenomenon in which, whenever movement is made upwards or downwards through the levels of some hierarchical system, the system unexpectedly arrives back where it started. Hofstadter (1989) uses the strange loop as a paradigm in which to interpret paradoxes in logic (such as Grelling’s paradox, the liar’s paradox, and Russell’s paradox) and calls a system in which a strange loop appears a tangled hierarchy.
Canon 5 from Bach’s Musical Offering (sometimes known as Bach’s endlessly rising canon) is a musical piece that continues to rise in key, modulating through the entire chromatic scale until it ends in the same key in which it began. This is the first example cited by Hofstadter (1989) as a strange loop.
Via Strange Loop — from Wolfram MathWorld.